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Main elements of Kazakhstan's space development
Dr. T. Mussabayev, Prof M. Moldabekov

Space activity on a global scale is constantly developing as a source of innovative technologies, actually in all areas of modern life. Many industries and services of the world have a direct dependence on the development of space activity. Thus, many countries of the world, including those in the Asian-Pacific region, are consistently increasing their scientific and industrial potential in this sphere, confidently and actively developing space technologies.
Certainly, the implementation of space activities by the countries in the Asian-Pacific region is one of the major factors for assuring the world's sustainable development. As an Asian country, the Republic of Kazakhstan is actively developing its space activities.
A guiding line of this development of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the “Strategy for Industrial-Innovative Development of Kazakhstan,” scheduled to run till 2015. Our country has also stated the aim of having Kazakhstan become one of the top 50 competitive countries of the world. Realizing these aims will be possible only because of scientific-technical and innovative progress, in which the important role belongs to scientific and hi-tech space activities.
We have made positive progress in this direction. First of all, we have the world's largest piece of space infrastructure - the Baikonur Cosmodrome - and a high scientific potential (Figure 1). Our main task today is to transform this scientific and technical potential into a real productive force towards creating a national space industry.
In view of this very important mission, the national space agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazcosmos) was founded by a decree of our head of state. The long-term development of our national space activities is being supported by the president and the government. Kazcomos has drafted a national space program, set to run till 2020, aiming to create a full-fledged space industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

To achieve that specified aim, the following tasks will need to be accomplished:
- Setting-up target space systems (communication, data transmission, Earth observation, navigation and scientific purpose systems);
- Setting-up and developing the ground space infrastructure including the Baikonur complex, and setting-up production, launching and satellite control facilities;
- Developing a scientific and scientific-technological base of space activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- Realizing target projects in the area of applying space systems and technologies;
- Educating and training specialists for the space industry;
- Creating a legal framework for space activities.

Conceptually, setting-up the space infrastructure including the base target space systems and objects of a ground space infrastructure, forms the basis of the program. (Figure 2).
Setting-up a space infrastructure is not an end in itself. It is only the tool of the end user for solving, with the use of space systems, social and economic development issues and strengthening the national security and defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan. To effectively use this tool it is necessary to implement target projects in the area of application of space systems and technologies, and also to develop a network of operators for space services for various customers.
The wonderful experience we have obtained during the implementation of the First National Space Program will allow us to prioritize tasks in terms of those having the most economic effect for the country.
Now, Kazakhstan together with Russia, on the basis of the Russian launcher Angara, is creating a new launching complex called “Baiterek” at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
The KazSat communication and broadcasting space system is also being created, which includes the launching of a constellation of three KazSat communication and broadcasting satellites. The first satellite was launched in 2006, and the second is planned to be launched in 2011.
Activities are under way to set-up the following:
- An Earth Observation system, which will consist of two optical satellites and one radar satellite;
- A space center in Astana, which will include a satellite assembly, integration and test complex for designing and assembling satellites on the basis of the newest technologies, and a national laboratory for space technology, and training centre for educating and training specialists for the space industry;
- Satellites and a scientific-purpose space system.

In Almaty City, Kazakhstan's large scientific and financial centre, the National Centre of Space Research and Technology has been established, and it includes:
- The Astrophysical Institute, which is dealing with the issues of exploring deep space;
- The Institute of Ionosphere which deals with the issues of exploring near space;
- The Institute of Space Researches which deals with the issues of receiving, processing and distributing space images;
- The Institute of Space Techniques and Technologies which deals with the issues of developing mathematical software for control, navigation and satellite simulation systems;
- The Institute of Geodynamics and Geophysics which deals with the issues of developing space system hardware and software applications for solving problems related to geodynamics and geophysics.

A space flight of a Kazakhstani cosmonaut to the International Space Station and implementation of the research experiment program developed by the National Center of Space Researches and Technologies is planned for the end of 2009.
Kazcosmos, to a greater extent, connects the development of space activities and creation of a space industry with the enhancement and intensification of international cooperation and the integration of our country to the world space industry. It is in complete agreement with the policy of our president, which is being based on diversification. Today Kazakhstan is open and ready for mutually beneficial cooperation with all interested states.

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