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National History

22,000 B.C. The Tablon Caves show inhabitance of man for about 40,000 years.
1 B.C. The rice terraces are built.
960 A.D. The Philippines start trading with China.
1200 In Mindanao the Islam is introduced.
1521 The Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrives in the Philippines with the specific quest to conquest the archipelago. This is also the time Catholicism was introduced. Magallan was soon killed by Lapu-Lapu in the battle of Mactan. The first expedition had to return to Spain and only after further four expeditions Miguel Lopez de Legazpi succeeded the colonization of the Philippines.
1571 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi takes possession of Manila and declares it the capital of the Philippines.
The Philippines was ruled by the Viceroy of Mexico for the Spanish crown. In the years of closer Spanish Mexican relationship Philippine galleons traveled regularly to Mexico. After Mexico became independent from Spain the Philippine were ruled directly from Madrid having a general governor residing in Malacanang Palace / Manila. In that period Catholicism manifested itself and the Philippines became the only Christian nation in Asia.
1861 Birth of Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines. He became a well-traveled writer and physician.
1887 Rizal's novel, Noli Me Tangere, which exposes Spain's abuse of the Philippines, is published.
1890 The creation of the San Miguel Pale Pilsen Beer
1892 Andres Bonifacio founds Katipunan, a secret society aiming the separation of the Philippines from Spain.
1896 August Andres Bonifacio gathers his leaders at a meeting in Balintawak, after which they proceed to Pugadlawin where they agree to fight the war until the end. This is also known as the Cry of Pugadlawin. The present Philippine national flag was patterned earlier flags dating back to August 26, 1896 when the first Katipunan flag was raised by Andres Bonifacio in Pugat Lawin. The first flag carried the three letter Ks which stood for " Kataastaasang Kagalanggalang Katipunan" or "Most High and Most Sacred Society."
December 30
Dr. Jose P. Rizal is executed at Bagumbayan, now called Luneta. He stirred the conscience of his people in a period where The Filipinos started several revolts against the Spanish. Many were killed in that period.
1898 Bonifacio was replaced by General Emilio Aguinaldo, who gained several victories in the fights against the Spanish.
The Spanish-American war breaks out. Commodore George Dewey attacks and destroys the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
Aguinaldo declare Philippine independence; a constitutional government is established with Emilio F. Aguinaldo as the first president. Several variation of the Philippine national flag were made until April 1897 when the Revolutionary Government under General Emilio Aguinaldo adopted the present design. The flag, sewn by three Filipino women in Hong Kong, was first raised on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite.
1898 August Spanish authorities surrender Manila to the Americans.
1898 December The treaty of Paris ending the war between Spanish and the United States is signed. Spain cedes the Philippines to the United States, thus ending close to 400 years of Spanish rule.
1899 The Philippine-American war (War of Philippine Independence) breaks out.
1901 The Philippine revolutionary leader General Emilio Aguinaldo is captured.
1902 Filipino armed resistance against the Americans ends. The Philippines remained an American colony for nearly 50 years. The American aim was to 1) to civilize and christianize the Filipinos 2) to have a military and naval base in Asia and 30 to get an entrance to the Asian market for their product and raw materials for their industry. The American colonial policy was unique because it was declared to be temporary from the start. The Americans promised to restore freedom and full democracy once the Filipinos had learned to rule themselves.
1935 After a short period of military rule a Commonwealth Government with Manuel L. Quezon as president was established.
1941 Japanese bombers attack the Philippines. From 1941 to 1945 the Philippines came under the Japanese Empire. Atrocities, arrogance and exploitation mark this period.
The Fall of Bataan. Defenders of Bataan surrender voluntarily and unconditionally. During the Death March, 70,000 prisoners walk approximately 120 km to Capas, Tarlac.
1942 Proclamation of a Japanese sponsored Philippine Republic with Jose P. Laurel as President.
1944 October Leyte Landing of US General Douglas MacArthur. Sergio Osmena, Sr. becomes President upon Quezon's death on August 1,1944.
1945 Liberation of the Philippines from Japan.
1946 Inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines after 48 years of American colonial rul, with Manuel A. Roxas as President. Vice president Elpidio R. Quirino, assumes the Presidency upon Roxas' death on April 14, 1948.
1948 Quirino is elected president. He continues rebuilding the country devastated by war, guiding its development to become an economically strong nation. The Philippines became a showcase in Asia for democracy in Asia and was at its economic peak in the 1950's. Foreign policy was closely tied to the United States.
1953 Ramon F. Magsaysay is elected president. He is acclaimed as a man of the masses. His death in a plane crash on March 17, 1957 is widely mourned by the country.
1957 Carlos P. Garcia becomes president. He formulates and implements the Filipino first Policy.
1961 Diosdado P. Macapagal, elected president, implements a land reform program to free tenants from age-old bondage to the soil. He changes the date of the Philippine Independence from July 4 to June 12 correcting a historical error and doing justice to the heroes of the 1896 revolution.
1965 Senator Ferdinand E. Marcos becomes elected president.
1969 Marcos is reelected for another four year term.
1972 Marcos declares martial law after violent student demonstrations and clashes with the Communist New People's Army and the Muslim rebels in Mindanao.
1973 A new constitution was pushed through allowing Marcos to prolong his stay in power. Political opponents were jailed, the Congress dismissed and the media silenced.
1981 Although martial law was partially lifted, Marcos remained in power and the army served him as private army.
1983 Marcos archrival Benigno S. Aquino, opposition leader, is gunned down upon arrival in Manila.
1986 The widow Mrs. Corazon Cojuangco Aquino decided to run against Marcos in snap elections on February 7. Both sides claimed victory, however Marcos was declared winner by the National Assembly. The Catholic Church issued a historic letter declaring the Marcos government illegitimate due to massive cheating during the presidential polls.
Marcos is deposed by a massive demonstration known as People Power I, which is Defence minister Juan Pnce Enrile and Deputy Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Fidel Ramos. Church and popular leaders mobilized the masses for a peaceful demonstration. Marcos led to Hawai on board of a US Air Force plane. Corazon C. Aquino takes her oath of office as president. Her Accomplishments are: restoration of democracy, justice and respect for human rights; start of peace talks with the Communist rebels, Muslim and Cordilera groups; restoration of confidence in government and credibility outside the Philippines.
1991 Mt. Pinatubo erupts causing heavy devastation and massive lahar (mud) flows. The US closes its naval and air base.
Fidel.V. Ramos is elected president. His presidency turns the country to Asian tiger club economy under a regime of law and democracy. A 30-year civil; war with the communist New Peoples Army (NPA) and Muslim secessionists ended.
June 12
The Philippines celebrates the Centennial of the Philippine independence.
June 30
Joseph Ejercito Estrada takes his oath of office as president.
1999 December Estrada faces an impeachment trial due to corruption and misuse of his powers.
2001 January The controversial voting of the pro-Estrada senators during the impeachment trial results in massive protests and the People Power II, forcing Estrada to step down. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo becomes elected president.

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